PLL-Reentry is a specialized version of PLL that:

  • Treats youth ages 10-18 within juvenile justice or foster care who are ready to transition back into their community from foster care or residential placements
  • Uses a unique blueprint model to actively engage the family as soon as the youth is placed in out-of-home placement rather than wait until the youth is released or reintegrated back into the home and community
  • Expedites permanency planning to reunify families sooner
  • Serves to shorten lengths of stay for youth in residential facilities through an "earned release" program

How it Works?

  • A 6-7 month model that includes:
    • A 6 week parenting education group
    • A minimum of 12 family therapy sessions
    • CBAT (Wraparound Case Management) services that focus on the Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Needs of the youth and family to prevent relapse
    • Specialized Motivational Interview procedures to engage resistant youth and parents
  • PLL-Reentry uses a unique delivery system that combines group and family therapy. Family therapy involves the caregiver, identified client, siblings, and extended family members, and focuses on behavior modification and family systems trauma work in one continuum of care (see PLL Clinical Applications)
  • When necessary, PLL-Reentry therapists use webinar technology to conduct live family therapy sessions between the youth in residential and the family at the home eliminating the barrier of driving distances
  • When possible, foster parents and biological parents attend PLL group and family therapy sessions together that serve to better synchronize the reintegration process.
  • PLL-Reentry therapists stay with the family during and after out-of-home placement to ensure continuity of care and successful reintegration without relapse.
  • PLL-Reentry provides comprehensive relapse prevention by providing 30, 60, and 90-day callbacks with families after they complete the PLL program. Tune-up sessions occur as needed.

PLL-Clinical Applications employed

  • FT-FST (Family Systems Trauma)

    This application focuses on eliminating problem symptoms in adolescents ages 10 to 18 caused by unhealthy undercurrents (e.g. unresolved grief, abandonment, family secrets, high anxiety, unmet basic needs like food, clothing, and shelter, etc.) that either cause or maintain Unhealed Wounds.

    PLL Delivery Systems employing FT-FST:  Reentry, ATP

  • FT-BM (Family Therapy Behavior Modification)

    This application focuses on eliminating problem symptoms in adolescents ages 10-18 caused by unhealthy undercurrents (e.g., inconsistent discipline, unhealthy boundaries, lack of proper parental hierarchy, lack of nurturance, etc.) that either cause or maintain chronic Misuse of Power in the family system.

    PLL Delivery Systems employing FT-BM: Reentry, ATP, Prevention

  • MI (Motivational Interview)

    This application serves as a “soft startup” to increase family engagement by accelerating joining and rapport building and lowering resistance to treatment. The Motivational Interview involves two levels: level one is a Motivational Phone Call to begin the “soft startup” process of increasing family engagement, and level two is a face-to-face meeting to further accelerate joining and rapport building with the goal of engaging the family to come to the first treatment session.

    PLL Delivery Systems employing MI: Reentry, ATP, Prevention

  • CBAT (Wraparound)

    This application is based on the philosophy of “It Takes a Village to Raise a Child”. The CBAT process brings together community leaders to identify and work a plan for each youth in the PLL program who will be returning to their community after being placed in a residential program away from home. The CBAT plan includes specific action steps to meet the needs of the youth as well as provide protective factors to both help the youth reintegrate back into his community and prevent recidivism (re-placement in a residential program).

    PLL Delivery Systems employing CBAT: Reentry, ATP (optional)

  • GT (Group Therapy)

    This application utilizes a teaching psycho-educational format that brings clusters of families together to learn new skills to eliminate problem symptoms in adolescents ages 10 to 18. The group process is also designed to move families into Contemplation around the cause of the adolescent’s problem symptoms and prepare the family for the FT-BM and FT-FST applications to occur.

    PLL Delivery Systems employing GT: Reentry, ATP, Prevention

PLL-Reentry Outcomes

Winokur-Early, K, Chapman, SF & Hand, GA (2013). Family-Focused Juvenile Reentry Services: A Quasi-Experimental Design Evaluation of Recidivism Outcomes, Journal of Juvenile Justice, V2, N2, 1-22

Highlights from this PLL-Reentry study include:

  • PLL youth had reduced recidivism for re-arrests, readjudications, and recommitments
  • PLL treatment significantly reduced length of stay (71 days difference)
  • Of the 153 youth who began the PLL program, 134 (81%) successfully completed PLL (p. 12)

TABLE 6 (p.13)
Treatment and Comparison Group Outcomes, Protocol Adherence Approach (n = 248)

  • PLL Reentry outcomes are also significant in comparison with nationally reported reentry recidivism rates as reported by the Casey Foundation
Re-arrest Rates 1 Year 37–67% PLL Reentry = 28.2%
2 Year 68–82%

Sources: Casey Foundation: All figures taken from state juvenile recidivism studies. A complete list of state recidivism studies can be found online at

PLL Reentry: A Unique Blueprint Operating System

PLL understands that each system is different and this unique blueprint operating system is tailored to the specific needs of that state or county.

Stages Stage I: Intensive Months 1 & 2
(in out of home placement)
Stage II: Transition Month 3, 4, 5
(prior to expected reunification)
Stage III: Aftercare Months 6 and 7
(back home with biological family or caregiver)
Youth Status In Foster Care, Group Home, Residential In Foster Care, Group Home, Residential Reunification With Biological or Kinship Family
Treatment Components
  • PLL Motivational Interviewing: One to two sessions lasting on average one hour in duration with Youth and Bio Family AND FOSTER PARENTS TOGETHER
  • Pre-Tests Administered: CBCL & FACES IV
  • PLL Parent, Teen, and Foster Parents-Only 6 Group Modules: Conducted in the community lasting two hours per group
  • PLL Family Therapy Sessions:Setting the Terms for Reunification Aftercare: Family therapy sessions lasting one to two hours in duration—Conducted in neutral site or at home with therapist present or in foster care home
  • Benchmark Meetings with DCS Caseworker: PLL Therapist, Family, Foster Care Parents, and DCS Caseworker and Incorporates the SAFETY PLAN
  • No More Parent-Only Group Modules
  • PLL Family Therapy Sessions:
Role Playing & Troubleshooting: implementation of the reunification plan, and pre-plan troubleshooting to address transition obstacles and techniques for handling resistance — Conducted in Home with Youth with therapist-home visit
  • Transition Wraparound CBAT (Community-Based Action Team) Services — Conducted in the community
  • Another Benchmark Meetings with DCS Caseworker: PLL Therapist, Family, Foster Care Parents, and DCS Caseworker to see if treatment goals are met with a recommendation to reunify
  • Same Therapist Before and After Reintegration: Continuity of Care
  • PLL Family Therapy Sessions: Reunification Maintenance: Therapy sessions occurring over the course of a minimum of three months
  • Relapse Prevention: Calls back to family every 30 days for three months post-graduation from PLL Reentry to monitor aftercare plan progress and address any obstacles

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